Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay The Necessity of Gun Control - 2422 Words

The Necessity of Gun Control Gun control is one of the most debatable topics today. Thirty-three million Americans own firearms for hunting (Aitkens 9). But hunting is not the sole reason for which many individuals buy firearms. Of all countries, the United States is the one which is troubled most by a large number of criminals who are in possession of guns. The U.S. has the highest firearm murder rate of any democracy in the world (Aitkens 5). Where is the country going wrong as far as gun control is concerned? An immense number of laws have been created by the legislature. All were made in order to be sure guns remain in control of the right hands, yet the problems seem to prevail. All three branches of government (judicial,†¦show more content†¦More than 47,000 people die each year in motor vehicle accidents. If we ban their use, no one will ever have a motor vehicle accident and no one will ever die (Aitkens 11). The whole idea of restricting firearms can seem absurd when contrasted with information published by the National Rifle Association which states that in reality over 99.8 percent of firearms and 99.6 percent of handguns will never be involved in criminal activity. This means that gun control laws would restrict law-abiding citizens, while doing nothing to reduce crime (Aitkens 13-15). The following twenty-seven words of the Second Amendment have caused quite a bit of confusion for the past two hundred years: A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed (Landau 44). The Second Amendment guarantees the right to bear arms. But to whom does it guarantee the right? Everybody? Whom exactly did the people who wrote the amendment have in mind? Lets not forget, this was written over two hundred years ago when life was different. At that time hunting was a major means of getting food and guns were required to protect oneself and ones property from hostile Native Americans and other intruders. In other words, what a car is to an American today, a rifle was to an American back then - a bare necessity (Gottfried 26-31). Another problemShow MoreRelatedEssay on Three Reasons Against Gun Control646 Words   |  3 PagesA controversial subject in America today is gun control; should there be or should there not be. I do not know the answer to this question, but I do have an opinion as most citizen of our country. All trough our history guns have been used for the good of the people, and on the other hand, they have been used for the not so good of the people ; however, as with most things there is a good use and a bad use. I believe the good uses out weigh the bad uses in this case. In this essay I am going toRead MorePros And Cons Of Gun Control1073 Words   |  5 Pages Implementing gun control in the United States would only result in more chaos and increased rebellion from citizens who responsibly and legally own firearms. In doing so, the law-abiding citizens would be left defenseless against the criminals who continue to obtain guns illegally. Not only that, but the 2nd amendment rights of the United States Constitution would be diminished and the crime in the community would remain the same or perhaps increase. Gun control would not stop criminals from illegallyRead MoreThe Gun Laws And Gun Control965 Words   |  4 Pagesoriginate from the accessibility of guns, but rather the actions of an individual that has disregard for life in today s society. There will always be ways for the offender commit crimes with or without guns. What is being done about gun control? We have all heard of all the tragedies throughout the country regarding guns. According to the President (2013) We know that we cannot stop every act of violence with guns, but what if we tried to stop even one? Weapon controls in the U.S. is structured atRead MoreThe Issue of Guns and Gun Control in America1146 Words   |  5 PagesIn America guns have been a part of the country’s society since it’s birth. Throughout history the citizens of the US have used firearms to protect the nation, protect their families, to hunt for food and to engage in sporting activities. The issue of Guns and gun control takes on a proportion of extreme magnitude. Weighing the rights and liberties of the individual against the welfare and safety of the public has always been a precarious balancing act. In the United States, gun control is one ofRead MoreCriminal Justice Department Of The Country1377 Words   |  6 Pagessociety. Particularly, the issue of gun violence and control has rai sed controversial debates between the media and law enforcers with different opinions arising from each party. This paper seeks to reflect on gun violence and control. Gun Violence and Gun Control The increased cases of gun violence in the U.S are alarming due to the increasing reported cases of gun shooting, especially in public setups, such as schools. Gun violence is a situation where people use guns to evoke violence in the societyRead MoreGun Control versus Gun Rights Essay1445 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction In America guns have been a part of the country’s society since it’s birth. Throughout history the citizens of the US have used firearms to protect the nation, protect their families, hunt for food and engage in sporting activities. The issue of Guns and gun control is complex. Weighing the rights and liberties of the individual against the welfare and safety of the public has always been a precarious balancing act. In the United States, gun control is one of these tumultuous issuesRead MoreEssay on Gun Control Rights958 Words   |  4 Pagesin the United States is gun control. It is clearly written in the Second Amendment of the Constitution that the people will have the right to bear arms. Recently; however, people have been misusing those firearms and have been harming others with them. The government is trying to regulate the sale, distribution, and ownership of guns because of this reason. Some of the arguments being made by the politicians is simply if the govern ment has the right to be able to control, and if it does, the effectivenessRead MorePublic Gun Control And The United States1732 Words   |  7 PagesPublic Gun Control in the United States Gun Control in the United States of America is a sensitive (understatement) topic that has resulted in various criticism and support by many citizens of the United States (also an understatement). Some citizens believe that the guns don t kill people; it is the people that kill people while others believe that guns lead to violence and a feeling of control and power over others. The belief of some is that if firearms were to be eliminated from the publicRead MoreGuns, For Better Or For Worse887 Words   |  4 PagesGuns, for better or for worse, are a central part of many societies culture. Created in the 13th century, they have been around for an extremely long period of time. (Wikipedia). They revolutionized many aspects of life including hunting and how wars are fought. With the immense power guns offer, comes an immense danger and responsibility. It is up to each country to regulate the possession and usage of such dangerous and volatile objects. When in the wrong hands, they po se a threat to societiesRead MoreThe Freedom And Freedom Of The United States Of America1603 Words   |  7 Pagesraised in this country. They were taught to always respect and cherish the rights and liberties given to us, the people, that were earned and are still being bravely defended to this day. Our rights were earned and are defended by our courageous, gun wielding soldiers. Currently, in this turbulent time of politics in our nation, many of our rights and privileges are being aimed at for attack and infringement. In this case, particularly, it is the American citizen s right to bear arms. This right

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

A Study On The Protective Immunity - 928 Words

In this study, the CRPV/HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model was used to assess the protective immunity generated by DNA vaccines delivered using the gene gun, the tattoo gun or the microneedle system. The focus was to determine whether the tattoo gun and the microneedle delivery systems were useful DNA vaccination alternatives to the gene gun. Our laboratory has successfully utilized the gene gun in our DNA vaccination studies for both protective and therapeutic purposes (17,34). However, the gene gun system is costly, and we are constantly looking for alternatives to back up our vaccine development program. Tattoo gun has been reported to deliver a DNA vaccine successfully in both mice and non-human primates (21-23). Compared with the gene gun and microneedle, tattoo gun delivery is more cost effective but more invasive which generates trauma and scars the vaccinated tissues. Microneedle delivery has achieved comparable protection in mice with twice the dose of gene gun delivery (24 ). However, no studies have been attempted in rabbits for DNA vaccination with either a tattoo gun or a microneedle. In the current study, we compared the gene gun with the tattoo gun as well as the tattoo gun with microneedle DNA vaccine delivery using our well-studied DNA epitope vaccines and our unique HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model (39). Read out was tumor outgrowth rates and tumor size. We demonstrated that these two novel DNA delivery systems can be used for DNA vaccination in the rabbitShow MoreRelatedInteractions Between Fungi And DC900 Words   |  4 Pagesand DC: How DC can be used to develop vaccines? Like mentioned previously, DC initiates activation of different types of cells based on type of molecules/antigens at site of infection. Hence different forms of fungi initiate different mechanisms of immunity. When DC pulsed with fungus are introduced into mice, they can initiate specific immune response against that antigen by activating CD4+ Th cells. The analysis of antigen specific proliferation and cytokine production from CD4+ Th cells was doneRead MoreA Research Analysis Of MERS-COV Mice912 Words   |  4 PagesAn experimental study done on Six-to eight-week-old specific pathogen-free female BALB/c mice to test if DNA vaccine encoding MERS-COV S protein can induce immunity against MERS-COV infection. The study generated 3 recombinant plasmids expressing MERS-CoV spike protein: pcDNA3.1-S, pcDNA3.1-SDCD, and pcDNA3.1-S1 which dissolved into Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with final concertation of 1  µg /  µl. Mice were divide randomly to experimental group which injected intramuscularly with 100  µg recombinantRead MoreRapid Diagnostic Tests In Rwanda Case Study1129 Words   |  5 Pagesmalaria transmission Combined malaria histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2)/ Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are often used to determine whether persons with fever should be treated with anti-malarials. The observation study carried out in Rwanda on 9226 from April 2014- April 2015 to compare the sensitivity of RDTs based on HRP2 and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in diagnosing malaria using microscopy and molecular test(PCR) to see if there is associationRead More##syl Lipid A ( GLA ) Adjuvants : Associated Antigen Portrayed In Fig1857 Words   |  4 Pagesassociated antigen (Rv1813) as shown in Fig1. The protein has been identified to recognize human T cells [11] and has the capacity to stimulate Th1 immune responses known to confer protective immunity that is required for an effective TB vaccine [12]. However, as is generally known, recombinant proteins are by themselves poorly immunogenic and need an adjuvant to stimulate adaptive immune responses. The Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA) adjuvant is a synthetic Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 4 that is formulatedRead MoreVaccinations : Should They Be Mandatory?1331 Words   |  6 Pagesmicroorganisms or toxins or of antibodies or lymphocytes† that is administered predominantly to thwart virus replication of a particular disease (Vaccine). It acts as a stimulant for the immune system of a human body which assists in developing adaptive immunity to a specific pathogen. Shockingly, vaccines themselves are created using components found in the virus or the bacteria itself (Offit). As of present, no federal vaccination laws exist in the United States of America although all states require childrenRead MoreHemoglobin Case Study940 Words   |  4 PagesThis study was aimed to assess the hemoglobin level, and associated factors to the development of neonatal infection in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In our study of 256 neonates, the most prevalent diagnosis on admission was Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) of new born (43.00%) followed by prematurity (29.70%). Birth weight (with mean=1889g,), gestational age (mean= 34.2 weeks), hospital stay (mean=12days) and hemoglobin level (mean=14 ±2 g/dl) had greater odds for development of neonatalRead MoreWay to Stronger, Healthier and a More Immune India1833 Words   |  7 Pagesimmunization - Colostrum: We are responsible for immunity of the babies to start developing right from birth itself. It is the babys right to drink the mothers first milk expressed which is called colostrum. It has large amount of main immune factor Immunoglobulin A(IgA) which forms a protective layer on the mucous membranes in the babys intestines, nose and throat. This protective layer protects the babies from invading germs. The protective layer formed in intestinal tract prevent babies fromRead MoreBreastfeeding : The Natural Source Of Nutrition For Babies1175 Words   |  5 Pagesfluid that a newborn needs in the early days after birth, as well as substances to protect the baby diseases. Compared to regular breast milk, colostrum is yellow in color, and very dense. Its color and thickness are a result of it being higher in protective nutrients and antibodies. (HHS- Office on Women’s Health, 4). Also, colostrum is higher in protein, slightly lower in sugar, extremely low in fat. A mother’s body will produce colostrum for many days after child birth, until milk production increasesRead MoreEssay On Natural Immunity Against Malaria1574 Words   |  7 PagesNatural Immunity against malaria: Natural immunity against asexual stage parasites develops with repetitive exposure to malaria parasites and thus forms the basis of clinical immunity against malaria (Baird, Jones et al. 1991, Day and Marsh 1991, Trape, Rogier et al. 1994, Baird 1995, Baird 1998, Hviid 2005). Though clinical immunity to malaria has been shown to develop in individuals, it does not prevent reinfection due to several factors including the complex life-cycle of the parasite and insufficiencyRead MoreThe Epidemic Of West Nile1599 Words   |  7 Pageschallenge were used in the 1999-2000 studies. These challenge models result in about 90% of the nonvaccinated control horses developing viremia, but only 10% demonstrated clinical disease. The intrathecal challenge model is the newest version. 70 to 90% of nonvaccinated control horses become visemic and 90 to 100% develop grave signs of encephalomyelitis. West Nile virus vaccines are licensed either as 1) an aid in protection against viremia or 2) protective against viremia and clinical disease

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Single Sex versus Co-ed Free Essays

Single-Sex versus Co-education Education is very important for both boys and girls, but the place they are being educated in is very arguable. Nowadays, it has been noticed that in a single-sex educational experience students exhibit an eagerness to participate in discussions. In Australia, the percentage of students attending single-sex secondary schools was 55% of boys and 54% of girls, in 1985. We will write a custom essay sample on Single Sex versus Co-ed or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, by 1995 the proportion of students attending had dropped to 41% of boys and 45% of girls. Let us start by onsidering the fact that studying in separate school, boys and girls, can indisputably concentrate on their studies and not get distracted easily by the opposite sex classmates. In addition to this, some religious and traditional families might be keener to educate their children in separate schools. Generally, students of single- sex schools perform better than those at co-ed schools. On the other hand, it could be better for boys and girls to study together since they should be taught fairly. Communication plays a big role in co-education schools. It helps pupils to communicate and socialize and it is easier for them in the future as they get to interact with others while working, in colleges and universities, etc. Moreover, students at co-ed schools learn to interact better with the other gender. After weighing the pros and cons, I would say that we live in a mixed world where interactions between both genders is compulsory, whether it was a debate at work or a group discussion among co-workers. The ability to speak out without intimidation is a vital feature in each individual. Written And Discussed By: JOY How to cite Single Sex versus Co-ed, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

History of Economics and Globalization

Question: Discuss about the History of Economics and Globalization. Answer: Introduction The term Globalization is a contemporary term but this of globalization practice is not new. There are economic trades, flow of capital, financial flows, increasing economic activities and transaction across the political borders exists since middle ages. There are many ups downs in the evolution of Globalization. It is in first half of the 20th century that globalization really picked up and expanded. In the 1929, the great depression started in US and crippled the economy for the next 4 years. Then In 1937, US economy was back on its track. There were shortage of resources in some nations and as a result export capital of some other nations grew rapidly during this time. Nations are begun to cooperate with each other. There was also understanding to exchange the economic resources between the nations to settle the international disputes as war consumers the resource of all the participating nations. In further course of time, Institutions like World Bank and international monetary fund established. The purpose of these is to monitor, regulate as well increase the economic transactions between the nations ( Gradually many nations also open their economies for foreign investment which give further rise to globalization n. Further With the advent of internet, digitalization and other disruptive IT innovations has fastened the pace of increasing economic transaction among nations. Also, the rapid growth of multinational companies and their hunger for newer markets has accelerated the globalization. Globalization, which had picked up its pace during the last quarter of 20th century has increased rapidly during 21st century. However Globalization has both positives as well as negatives. On one hand, it is making sure that the consumers get the lowest price due to the increased competition but at the same time, many people are becoming unemployed because there are poor nat ions with cheap labor available. There are tax heavens which are exploited by the corporations who saved a lot of tax by shifting their base to such countries. Unemployment levels in US have become very high due to migrants from India and China has replaced their jobs. Every time there are elections in America, increasing employment by putting more restriction on immigrants is the top agenda of all the parties. However, there are corporate who always require fewer rules and thus believe in lobbying the government. The objective of this report is to throw a light on history of economics and globalization in details and how some countries are benefitted from it while some countries are losing because of it. Evolution of Globalization Globalization is not a new practice; it has been there since middle ages. However, it enters to next level in the 18th century with the spread of Industrial revolution and huge development in human technology, inanimate traction for goods which lead to mass production of goods and transportation of goods and people across border, financial investments flows between nation and colonial plunder by European nations. The income was increasing rapidly between European and American nations on one hand and rest of the world on the other hand. After that Globalization halted for sometime due to the various wars of 20th century. However it picked up again during the second half of 20th century and currently in 21st century, Globalization has become the trend and pervades every aspect of life. It will be difficult to image the life without Globalizations. Some brands have become commodity worldwide, some corporate have shifter their manufacturing units in low cost countries that it will be con tinue to be there. It can be said that the economies of different nations is linked closely with the globalization. It is observed that the nations that are open to global firms have strong economic structure as compared to the nations that are not open to global firms. Many forums like World Bank, World trade organization, international monetary fund are established to regulate the international trade between countries ( World bank was established with long-term aim of reducing poverty and improving standard of living by promoting economic development (Baylis, Smith, Owens, 2013). International trade and International Finance International finance uses the macroeconomic models to understand international economy. It identifies the relationship between indicators like GDP, exchange rates, unemployment rate, inflation rate, interest rates. The aim of international finance is to look after trade deficit and imbalances and makes sure that indicators are in control by influencing government fiscal and monetary policies and determining exchange rates. International trade is the application of micro economic models to study the international economy. It studies demand and supply analysis of international markets, consumer behavior, oligopoly, effect of market distortions. This is basically to understand how the international trade has affected the individuals, businesses. Globalization has increased the unemployment rate in some developed countries and decreases the unemployment rate in some developing countries. This statement is more related to International finance. Globalization has increased the demand of s ome goods across world and there is always shortage of supply is related to International trade. Emergence of Cross-national cooperation and agreements There are various forums developed like SAARC (South Asian Association for regional cooperation) with aim to increase and promote regional and economical integration. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was also established in 1961 to improve the standard of living and quality of life of the people around the world. Under it, member countries share their problems and try to help each other. OECD also measures global flows of investment and trade. Likewise, there are many forums established worldwide which is a sign of Collaboration. More and more nations are now realizing the power of the collaboration. Nations began to understand that this will lead to more growth. Many nations are sharing their technology and hence there is no need to reinvent the wheel every time. Research also progressed at a rapid pace. ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) was established in 1967 with one of the aim of cooperation in Industrial development, Food and agriculture, Finance, Banking industry, Tourism, energy, private sector. APEC (Asia pacific Economic co-operation) was established in 1989 with aim of reduce trade barriers between the member countries and to increase the gains for the world economy resulting from the interdependence of the economies and by encouraging flow of goods, service, technology. Similarly, there is establishment of AU (African union) and EU (European Nation). EU is political and economical union of 28 member countries to achieve more economic integration and generate more jobs in all the member countries (Draguhn, Manske, Ruland, 2013). NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement) is union of US, Canada and Mexico creating free trade area. After NAFTA was signed, there is huge increase in exports and imports with Canada and Mexico as it reduced the trade barriers. It also aims for protecting the intellectual propriety rights of the nations and promote conditions of free trade. It highly encouraged the flow of investment in each others capital nations. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) was also established consisting of countries that mainly exports oil with aim of safeguarding the interest of all the oil producing countries individually as well as collectively (Nye, 2012). This is how the various nations come together to signed contracts, trade agreements with each other to increase the trade. However, this wave of Globalization during last quarter of 20th century consists more of government, social and political nature. In the beginning of 21st century, technology was growing at a rapid pace, Internet, digitalization becomes much more common and globalization grows in a much accelerated mode. This current wave of Globalization is lead by the growth of the multinational corporations (MNCs). As these MNCs firms have relocated their various business functions across different countries in search of cheap labor, tax gains, potential for growth markets, they have started a new wave of accelerated economic internationalization. They are increasingly seen as main agents of Globalization. Today, Pizza hut, McDonalds, KFC, starbucks are present in almost many countries. Brands like Unilever, PG, Colgate, Apple, Microsoft, Virgin, Mtv, Samsung are also quite po pular around the world because of the Globalization. Some countries are hugely benefitting from the Globalization while some countries are declining in terms of their economy due to Globalization. Similarly, some industries are also enjoying the benefits of Globalization, while some industries are struggling due to their technology being stolen by other nations or mimic by other nations and provided cheaper alternatives to the consumers. Benefits of Globalization Let us look at the some of the benefits of the Globalization and the countries/Industries, which are enjoying these benefits: The most important benefit of the Globalization is the increase economic activity and increased competition among the companies. Consumers are spoilt for choice as same product is available in multiple brands as well as there is huge diversification in products also. Consumers are enjoying the best of the things of different countries. Also, due to increased competition among the corporations, there is a need to keep the prices low which is also very good situation for the consumers. Consumers now enjoy huge bargaining power. Globalization has also increased the wealth and standard of living of people in developing countries. Organizations have created the jobs in the developing nations by shifting their offices in those countries. Globalizations impact on Developing countries Countries like India, China, are hugely benefitted from the Globalization because of availability of cheap labor. Lot of labor jobs as well as white collar jobs has shifted from America and Europe to eastern nations like China and India because of availability of cheap labor. Different countries are sharing their technology and resources for the research to solve the worlds problems like pollution, scarcity of water. Due to globalization, there is no need to reinvent the wheel every time. Many organizations like unilever, Amazon, Microsoft, apple, Pizze hut, McDonalds, Burger King, Sony, Samsung benefitted hugely from the globalizations by selling their products to newer and unexplored markets (Mcmichael, 2015). Also, as these organizations have shifted their offices and manufacturing units to cheap places, they area also generating jobs which in turn have increased the purchasing power of the people and hence there is huge increase in demand. It improved the global economy and reduc es the poverty to some extent (Mcmichael, 2015). Also, another benefit is that people who are very talented but not getting the adequate education now have to world class institutions like Stanford, Harvard. China and Indian economies are hugely benefitted from the globalization. Chinas economy is growing very fast and has already surpassed Japan and Germany and as per the research, by 2030 China will become the largest economy in the world ahead of USAs economy (Jorgenson, Vu, 2013). Few years back, Researchers were claiming that china will surpass USA by 2040. Tremendous growth of China has led the researchers to refine their forecasts and decrease the guidance. Indias economy is also growing rapidly and may climb the ladder by outshining the France by 2018 (Dyker, 2015). (Source: Downsides of Globalization However, there are downsides of Globalization also. It has increased the gap between rich and poor. Rich people are getting richer while poor are getting poorer. These multinationals corporations are becoming greedy in their continuous search of newer markets and are exploiting the developing countries due to the strict norms in the developed countries. For instance, many pharmaceutical companies are shifting their research into Africa because people are so poor over there that Pharmacy companies can test their new medicines on them by paying them (Myers, 2014). It is although illegal but happening. These organizations are exploiting workers, labors to meet the increasing demand and not paying them as per the standards. Also, these gigantic companies with presence all over the world are effecting the development of small scale companies in developing countries. For instance, these companies are cash rich and when they expand their business in newer countries, they offer tremendous di scounts to attract the customers. This lead to closure of many small and medium scale companies in such countries (Stromquist, Monkman, 2014). Uber and Amazon are some of the examples practicing this strategy (Hong, 2016). Brain drain is another consequence of the Globalization. Talented people are leaving their countries in search of high paying jobs and shifting to different countries (Docquier, Rapoport, 2012). This practice is very common in some eastern countries and hence hinders the economic development of such countries. For instance Doctors, Scientists are highly paid jobs in western countries and people in these professions are moving to western countries. Globalization has shifted the manufacturing technology to cheaper areas like India and China and that led to risk of technology being stolen or copied. For instance, Apple moves their manufacturing in China. Their technology is copied in China and there are many cell phones similar to Apple are being sold in China at very low prices (Hay, Marsh, 2016). There are legal wars going on between Apple and Samsung about copying of each other intellectual rights. China has copied everything available and selling their duplicates products in markets at a cheaper price. This is a classic downside of the Globalization. Impact of Globlization on Developed countries America and Europe are badly affected by the Globalization. With Globalization, American workers compete with workers from all the countries and definitely corporate will hire cheap labor which put American jobs at high risk. There has been constant loss of manufacturing jobs as well closure of factories in America since globalization picked the pace (Lamber, Mattson, Dorriere, 2016). Politicians have this agenda of lose of American jobs as top priority in their elections. There are elections in 2016 and all the parties are putting this thing on top of their agenda to gain votes. Donald Trump is openly claimed that he will get the American their jobs back which are taken by the people from China and India (Tseng, Cowen, 2013). However, Multinational corporations are also very powerful and they always want the cheap labor. This is how Globalization has affected Americans. US trade deficit is also continuously increasing due to globalization. USA, Germany, France are gradually began to see the effect of globalization that China and economies of other countries are become quite gigantic and will rise the ladder soon (Morroson, 2012). Conclusion Globalization has become a trend in this new wave of economic internationalization and rapid growth of multinational corporations. Globalization has both positives as well as negatives impacts. While developing nations are hugely benefitted from Globalization, Developed nations are now facing the heat after enjoying the benefits of globalizations, exploiting the cheap labor in under developed countries. There are so many factories closing down in China. Organizations like Apple have shifted their manufacturing units to China. Google, Amazon is planning to shift their operation in India to save the huge expenses. There should be central leadership or forum that should control the mal practices that arise due to globalization. There are many forums already in place to regulate the trade activities but the issues are also remained as it is from several years. There is a lack of leadership. There are so many incidences of copying of technology by Chinese companies and then selling the pr oducts at a cheap rate. This already made MNCs to lose their billion dollars. Trade agreements like NAFTA and many other are good for politicians, organizations but not for the common man as it leads to outsourcing of numerous jobs. References Baylis, J., Smith, S., Owens, P. (2013).The globalization of world politics: An introduction to international relations. Oxford University Press. Carmody, P. (2010).Globalization in Africa: recolonization or renaissance?. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Docquier, F., Rapoport, H. (2012). Globalization, brain drain, and development.Journal of Economic Literature,50(3), 681-730. Draguhn, W., Manske, E., Rland, J. (2013).Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): The First Decade. Routledge. Dyker, D. A. (2015).World Scientific Reference on Globalisation in Eurasia and the Pacific Rim:(In 4 Volumes) Volume 1: Foreign InvestmentVolume 2: InnovationVolume 3: Energy: Policy, Legal and Social-Economic Issues under the Dimensions of Sustainability and SecurityVolume 4: Migration: Economic Drivers of Contemporary Labour Mobility in East Asia. X. Dai, P. Farah, P. Rossi, A. Fielding (Eds.). World Scientific. Epstein, J. (2016). Crowd Actions in Britain and France from the Middle Ages to the Modern World. Edited by Michael T. Davis. Hay, C., Marsh, D. (Eds.). (2016).Demystifying globalization. Springer. Hong, J. (2016). Inside the great wall.Communications of the ACM,59(8), 10-11. Jorgenson, D. W., Vu, K. M. (2013). The emergence of the new economic order: Growth in the G7 and the G20.Journal of Policy Modeling,35(3), 389-399. Lambert, T., Mattson, G., Dorriere, K. (2016). Industry Clustering and Unemployment in US Regions: An Exploratory Note. McMichael, P. (2015). World-systems analysis, globalization, and incorporated comparison.journal of world-systems research,6(3), 668-689. Morrison, W. M. (2012). China's economic conditions.Current Politics and Economics of Northern and Western Asia,21(3/4), 289. Myers Jr, L. A. (2014). Globalization, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Ethical Considerations.Journal of Management,2(2), 45-61. Nye, J. S. (2012). The twenty-first century will not be a post-American world.International Studies Quarterly,56(1), 215-217. Stromquist, N. P., Monkman, K. (Eds.). (2014).Globalization and education: Integration and contestation across cultures. RL Education. Tseng, M. W., Cowen, M. D. (2013).India's and China's recent experience with reform and growth. International Monetary Fund.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Plato The Allegory of the Cave Essays

Plato The Allegory of the Cave Essays Plato The Allegory of the Cave Paper Plato The Allegory of the Cave Paper Plato was a Philosopher who used a story based on people imprisoned in a cave to explain the way in which he thought humans formed ideas based on their senses. The story is known as the Allegory of the Cave and is one of Platos most famous passages. The allegory has different meanings at different levels; therefore there is not just a single moral in this story. Plato believed that there were two worlds, the world of appearance, the world we are in, and another world known as reality a world we were all in before we entered the world of appearance, however we cant remember it. Plato suggests that the body is a kind of prison in which the soul is trapped. The allegory begins with several prisoners tied up and trapped in a cave with little light. Plato uses this to show how he feels the soul is trapped in the body, as if it were imprisoned. The only light comes from a small fire, which is also used as a projector to show images of puppets on a wall in front of where the prisoners are positioned. The prisoners are only aware of one thing in the cave, the shadows created by the puppets. They believe that the shadows are a form of real life; to them they are real images but according to Plato they are very mistaken. The prisoners have lived in the cave all their lives and know no different. Plato uses this to show how we build up knowledge based on what we see. As the prisoners have never know any other form of life or even another world they are forced into thinking that there experience is normal, because that is all that their senses have ever experienced. Furthermore, Plato claims that the prisoners would assume that the echoes made by the people came from the shadows of the puppets, and that these echoes would also be taken as reality. As is now evident, the shadows are highly (and deliberately) analogous to everyday beliefs held to be true by the majority of people, which in reality are no more than mere illusions. Plato is here demonstrating, by use of the shadows, what he believes to be the lower level of intellect, i.e. belief, as opposed to the higher level of intellect, i.e. knowledge {or dialect}. On what grounds might Platos understanding of human knowledge be criticised? Platos understanding of human knowledge may be criticised on a number of grounds, the first and most fundamental of which in my opinion, would be the abstractness of his theory of knowledge, specifically, the theory of the forms. Many may argue that the idea of having a non-temporal, non-spatial, universally perfect form for every object in the phenomenal world is, quite plainly, ridiculous, on the grounds that perfect form is only relative to the person or standard judging that form. Take for example, Platos perfect form of beauty. We see numerous examples in everyday life of peoples perceptions, and differences of opinion in matters of beauty; in relation to art, sexual partners, cars, in fact almost anything. The idea that the amount of beauty in the above things can be agreed upon by every single person seems absurd enough, never mind the absurdity of a universal form of beauty being agreed upon. The elitism of Platos understanding may also be criticised, as it may seem immoral to some because of the arrogance portrayed by him. What Plato is actually claiming is that only a tiny minority of people like himself have true understanding, and that the rest are ignorant and wrong. Platos attitude is summed up by his quotation of Homer, to illustrate his point, effectively saying how he would rather be a surf in the house of some landless man than live and think as they do. A further criticism would be that Platos understanding of knowledge has no practical relevance, as it gives no indication or guide as to how to achieve the higher levels of intellect or, more importantly, how to apply his theory to the moral field of making everyday decisions.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Agents and Representatives in Budgeting Process Research Proposal

Agents and Representatives in Budgeting Process - Research Proposal Example The role of agents in budgeting is of great significance and, hence, should not be overlooked. During the preparations of the annual budgets and reports from all the state organs, profit, and non-profit enterprises, all the stakeholders are represented via agents. The representing agents should be individuals with deep understanding of finance and knowledgeable in accounting. It is the participation of all the agents representing the relevant institutions in the budgetary process that is commonly referred to as departmental agency budgeting (Goodman and Clynch, 2004). This process entails four major stages, namely: i. Comprehensive Fiscal Policy Formulation Under this umbrella, the overarching institutional objectives are formulated and determined. It is these policies that regulates the decision making process regarding aggregate expenditure and revenue of the firm. ii. Preparation and Enactment of the Budget It is in this stage that the government decides on proportions of financia l allocation to be advanced to each agent, and also the government outlines the purpose for which the funds are allocated to a given agent. The guiding principles relating to these are set out clearly by the legislations enacted by the state. iii. Budgetary Execution This is the actual stage in budgeting. It involves carrying out the stipulated expenditure as developed in the budget plan. It is in this stage that contractual agreements are signed between the budgetary committee and the contractors (Goodman and Clynch, 2004). iv. Accounting, Auditing, and Reporting This being the final stage in budgeting, it is the post-ante process of preparing the accounting records regarding revenues and expenditures executed by the organization within a given fiscal period. These records must have been audited by both internal and hired external experts/auditors to ensure that they meet the international accounting and auditing standards. The final reports (audited reports) are then presented to the financers, government agencies, ministers, the public and the parliament. Objectives of Budgeting The following are the key objectives of budgeting: Sound Macro-Fiscal Result: This forms the backbone to aggregate fiscal policy objective in budgeting. To ensure fiscal sustainability, sound fiscal policies must be put in place to regulate financial operations and to ensure that organization short-term debts are paid when they fall due. This policy also acts as macro-stabilizer to the economy by regulating taxation policies during boom and recession. Appropriate Expenditure Prioritization: This policy advocates for effective allocation of resources to those projects that are deemed socially profitable. The corollary under this objective is to avoid misallocation of resources especially to least priority sectors of the economy, but instead to maximize on the social gains. Service Efficiency and Effectiveness: This implies that the state services delivery is made more efficient and e ffective in a manner that is socially justifiable and acceptable by all the stakeholders. 1. Budget Overview Taking an example of HIV/AIDS funding program, during the financial allocation process, all the departments involved must have their representative on board.